Application of electrodialysis technique in removal of some heavy metal ions from discharge wastewater in paper industry

Document Type : Original Article


1 Gesr AlSuez

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Boy’s branch), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Girl’s branch), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.


Electrolysis (ED) is a modern technology for separating pollutants using membranes located in an electric field and has therefore been used in industrial wastewater treatment. The cornerstone of an ED cell is a stack of membranes whose planar plate is composed of cation (CM) and anion (AM) selective membranes. To investigate design requirements such as limiting current density (LCD), current efficiency and membrane resistance by laboratory experimental scale using an ED cell with electrodes, stainless steel 316 [cathode (-) and anode (+)],value of pH equal 6.8 and low voltage supply energy of 24.8 V is installed to remove about 100mg/L for each metal (Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Lead, and Cadmium) ions out of solution of salts. The modified membranes and electrodes to upgrade its durability and conductivity, the recycle flow was 90 and 34 L/hr for concentrate and product, respectively, which are 25 and 9.4 ml/s and with consumed 7 to 11 kWh/m3 for a continuous operation.  For industrial wastewater; the results are obtained a best and encouraging specific with removal efficiency (up to 91.87%) during the 4 hr operating time. The result of removing heavy metal ions was 1.521, 0.96, 0.123, 1.41, 0.94, 0.12 and 0.097 mg/L as initial concentrated and after passing through ED cell became finial concentration 0.23, 0.11, 0.01, 0.22, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.014 with removal efficiency 84.88, 88.54, 91.87, 84.40, 85.11, 83.33 and 85.57% for heavy metal ions under study respectively. The next is being acted on large scale for long operating system.


Main Subjects

[1] Babel S, Kurniawan T. Cr (VI) Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Coconut Shell Charcoal and Commercial Activated Carbon Modified with Oxidizing Agents and/or Chitosan. Chemosphere. 2004; 54: 951-967.
[2] Amin E, Goher M, El-Shamy A, Abdel-Wahed, A. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Amidoxime Chelating Resin (CACR) and Application for lead Removal from Aqueous Medium. Egypt Aquat. Biol. Fish. 2020; 24(1): 623-637.
[3] Radjenovic J, Sedlak DL. Challenges and Opportunities for Electrochemical Processes as Next-Generation Technologies for the Treatment of Contaminated Water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015; 49(19): 11292-11302.
[4] Canizares P, Paz R, Saez C, Rodrigo MA. Electrochemical oxidation of alcohols and carboxylic acids with diamond anodes: A comparison with other advanced oxidation processes. Electrochim. Acta. 2008; 53: 2144-2153.
[5] Canizares P, Paz R, Saez C, Rodrigo MA. Costs of the electrochemical oxidation of wastewaters: a comparison with ozonation and Fenton oxidation processes. J Environ Manage. 2009; 90: 410–420.
[6] Zhou Q, Deng S, Yang B, Huang J, Wang B, Zhang T, Gang Yu. Efficient Electrochemical Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoate using a Ti/SnO2-Sb-Bi anode. Environ Sci Technol. 2011; 45(7): 2973-2979.
[7] Zhou Q, Deng S, Yang B, Huang J, Wang B, Zhang T, Gang Yu. Degradation of perfluorinated compounds on a boron-doped diamond electrode. Electrochim Acta. 2012; 77: 17-22.
[8] Koros WJ, Ma YH, Shimidzu T. Terminology for membranes and membrane processes (IUPAC Recommendations 1996). Pure Appl Chem. 1996; 68(7): 1479-1489.
[9] Zhang Y, Ghyselbrecht K, Vanherpe R, Meesschaert B, Pinoy L, Van der Bruggen B. RO concentrate minimization by electrodialysis: techno-economic analysis and environmental concerns. J Environ Manage. 2012; 107(C): 28–36.
[10] Ortiz JM, Sotoca JA, Expo´sito E, Gallud F, Garcı´a-Garcı´a V, Montiel V, Aldaz A. Brackish water desalination by electrodialysis: batch recirculation operation modeling. J Membr Sci. 2005; 252(1–2): 65–75.
[11] Huang C, Xu T, Zhang Y, Xue Y, Chen G. Application of electrodialysis to the production of organic acids: state-of-the-art and recent developments. J Membr Sci. 2007; 288(1–2): 1–12.
[12] Hell F, Lahnsteiner J, Frischherz H, Baumgartner G. Experience with full-scale electrodialysis for nitrate and hardness removal. Desalination. 1998; 7: 173–180.
[13] Van Geluwe S, Braeken L, Robberecht T, Jans M, Creemers C, Van der Bruggen B. Evaluation of electrodialysis for scaling prevention of nanofiltration membranes at high water recoveries. Resour Conserv Recycl. 2010; 56(1): 34–42.
[14] Chao Y-M, Liang TM. A feasibility study of industrial wastewater recovery using electrodialysis reversal. Desalination. 2008; 221(1-3): 433-439.
[15] Strathmann H. Operating principle of electrodialysis and related processes. In: Ion-exchange membrane separation processes. Elsevier Science & Technology. 2004; 9: 147-225.
[16] Strathmann H. Electrodialysis, a mature technology with a multitude of new applications. Desalination. 2010; 264(3): 268-288.
[17] Lee H, Sarfert F, Strathmann H, Moon S. Designing of an electrodialysis desalination plant.  Desalination. 2002; 142: 267–286.
[18] Brauns E, De Wilde W, Van den Bosch B, Lens P, Pinoy L, Empsten, M. On the experimental verification of an electrodialysis simulation model for optimal stack configuration design through solver software. Desalination. 2009; 249(3): 1030-1038.
[19] Mihara K, Kato M. Polarity reversing electrode units and electrical switching means therefore, U.S. Patent. 1969: 3,453,201.
[20] Hays J. Iowa’s first electrodialysis reversal water treatment plant. Desalination. 2000; 132: 161-165.
[21] Roquebert V, Booth S, Cushing R, Crozes G, Hansen E. Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and ion exchange as polishing treatment for perchlorate treatment. Desalination. 2000; 131: 285-291.
[22] Valero F, Arbós R. Desalination of brackish river water using Electrodialysis reversal (EDR). Desalination. 2010; 253: 170-174.
[23] Menkouchi Sahlia M, Annouarb S, Mountadarb M, Soufianec A, Elmidaouia A. Nitrate removal of brackish underground water by chemical adsorption and by electrodialysis. Desalination. 2008; 227: 327–333.
[24] Dalla Costa R, Klein C, Bernades A, Ferreira J. Evaluation of the Electrodialysis Process for the treatment of metal finishing wastewater. J. Braz.Chem. 2002; 13(4): 540-547.
[25] Pilat B. Industrial application of electrodialysis reversal systems. Desalination. 2003; 158: 87-89.
[26] Korngold E, Aronov L, Daltrophe N. Electrodialysis of brine solutions discharged from an RO plant. Desalination. 2009; 242: 215–227.
[27] AWWA. Committee report: current perspectives on residual management for desalting membranes. J. AWWA. 2004; 96: 73-87.
[28] APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.2005.
[29] APHA. American Public Health Association: Standard methods of the examination of water and waste water. 18th edition, AWWA, WPCF. 1995; 1015P.
[30] Koutsou CP, Yiantsios SG, Karabelas AJ. Direct numerical simulation of flow in spacer-filled channels: effect of spacer geometrical characteristics. J Membr Sci. 2007; 291(1–2): 53–69.
[31] Silva V, Poiesz E, Heijden P. Industrial wastewater desalination using electrodialysis: Evaluation and plant design. J. Appl. Electrochem. 2013; 43(6): 1057–1067.
[32] Maletzki F, Rösler H, Staude E. Ion transfer across electrodialysis membranes in the over limiting current range: stationary voltage current characteristics and current noise power spectra under different conditions of free convection, J. Memb. Sci. 1992; 71: 105–116. doi:10.1016/0376-7388(92)85010-G.
[33] Lee H, Strathmann H, Moon S. Determination of the limiting current density in electrodialysis desalination as an empirical function of linear velocity. Desalination. 2006; 190(1-3): 43-50.
[34] Długołe cki P, Anet B, Metz SJ, Nijmeijer K, Wessling M. Transport limitations in ion exchange membranes at low salt concentrations. J Membr Sci. 2010; 346(1): 163–171.
[35] Lee H, Moon S. Fouling mitigation in the repeated batch runs of electrodialysis with Humate Foulant. Korean J Chem Eng. 2004; 21(3): 629–634.